IT IS GATHERED, LEARNT, THOUGHT OVER,PONDERED AND FELT WORTH FOR THE POSTERITY TO LEARN FROM ONE SPOT. THANK YOU MY FRIEND, ENTHARO MAHANU BAVULU ANTHARIKI VANDNAMU MAY BE MY GRAND CHILDREN ARE BENEFITTED.
asked: So should not
every bit of sound in this universe be called music? Each individual is the
best judge to choose his music. Screaming is music in Rock songs, there are
definitions/ proper learning methodogies to learn to scream also. why is some
music pleasant to our ears and some music not?
Hindustani Music: Tansen based his theories of music according to the Shiv
Mata and the Hanuman Mata in which the expositions of the characteristics of
the six main Ragas namely (1) Bhairav (2) Malkosh (3) Hindol (4) Shree (5) Megh
(6) Dipak and their Raginis and the Raga Putras were given. In Sanskrit works like
Sangitadarpana correlation of the ragas with Raginis seems to be based on
imaginary grounds or fictions. But both Basat Khan and Wazir Khan in
their musical manuscripts, have rearranged the relations between Ragas and
Raginis which they ascribed to Tansen's theories in a way satisfying both
reason and science. These two great musicians accepted the theory of twelve Melas and showed that the six
main Ragas belonged to the six main Melas and there was correlation between the
Ragas and Raginis according to the similarities of Melas, Vadi, Samvadi and
The origin of the Arabic and the Persian music may be
traced from Greece. But
it should be remembered that the Greeks were indebted to Egypt on the one hand
and India on the other for the development of their philosophy, music, science
and the various arts Tansen was the son of a Gaudiya Brahniin of Benaras
and was initiated by Haridas Svamii in the Brahma Vidya and Nada Vidya and
later on was initiated by the Pir of Gwalior in the cult of sufism. Although by
his marriage with a Muslim lady he embraced the Islamic religion, he did not
forsake the teachings of the Vedic cult ; rather he combined the philosophical
principles and the practices of the Vedas and the Bhakti Sastra of India with
the Sufi cult of Persia.
Music, the ancient Persians believed that this art
had originated from the melodious notes of a bird which they called Mausiqar.
The beak of the bird has seven holes in it and through each hole it used to
sound a different note. . Pythagoras
wrote a book entitled Mausike in the Greek language in about 500 B. C. Mou in
Greek means air and sike means knot and the word mousike meant "tying a
knot in the air". Persians and Arabs call music,
"Mousike", Pythagoras was known as a student of Sankhya Philosohpy
and many believe that he learnt also the fundamental principles of Indian
Indian music is one of the
oldest musical traditions in the world. The Indus Valley civilization left sculptures which show dance and musical instruments (some no longer in
use), like the seven holed flute. Various types of stringed instruments and
drums have been recovered from Harrappa and Mohenjo Daro by
excavations carried out by Sir Mortimer
Wheeler. The Rigveda has
elements of present Indian music, with a musical notation to denote the metre
and the mode of chanting. Early Indian musical tradition also speaks
of three accents and vocal music known as "Samagan" (Sama meaning
melody and Gan meaning to sing). The classical music of India includes two
major traditions: the southern Carnatic music and the northern Hindustani classical music.
India's classical music tradition is millennia long and remains important to
the lives of Indians today as a source of religious inspiration, cultural
expression, and entertainment. The origins of Indian classical music can be found
from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. Samaveda, one of the four vedas describes
music at length.
Aarav आरव्:Aarav आरव् is a Sanskrit word, rooted in the word rav रव् , which means rustling
sound. Aarav आरव् means melodious
music or sound Aarav आरव् is also a popular male first name in India, it means :A person who is well-composed,
poised and at peace with himself.
Sanskrit verse has a particular chandas, a metre, so it lends itself easily to
music patterns. You can set the same metre to different talas but you
must do so without distorting the meaning or breaking words. Also one has
to match the melody to the rasa, the
mood or emotion; make the meaning felt
through the rasa. The tempo must also match the rasa – for the karuna (pitiful)
rasa we need a slow tempo, a faster one for the vira (heroic) rasa and so
on. Pronunciation and the meaning
must not get lost in the melody.
Now a question: Why do we like certain musical genres over others? May be Emotional connections:
what we grew up with, shared tastes with friends (social norms too), all that
stuff that brings back a world of memories.Then, there's the actual
characteristics of the music: fast or slow, modern or old or REALLY old,
intellectual content vs emotional expression.Not to forget short-term moods.
I'm in the mood for such-and-such a song. You could broaden this and say that
some people's long-term moods affect their music tastes, either way.
Another question: Why do different
people enjoy different types of music?
are several reasons, such as rhythm. Some people who like rap, rock, hip hop,
techno, etc. might not listen to the words and listen to the beat or the rhythm
of the song. Another reason is that it may have a connection with someone's
past. If they listened to a certain genre when they were younger, they might
like it because it reminds them of their childhood, or someone close to them
liked it and they like remembering that person by listening to that genres or
those genres. So the principle of individual differences in
sensory experience (at the neuronal level) combined with social and cultural
learning probably accounts for the vast differences in preferences that we see
in food, music, etc.
Western and in general: In music, texture is the way the melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic materials are combined in a composition, thus determining the overall quality of the sound in a piece.
Texture is often described in regards to the density, or thickness, and range, or width between lowest and
highest pitches, in relative terms as well as more specifically distinguished
according to the number of voices, or parts, and the relationship between these
voices. For example, a thick texture contains several different
"layers" of instruments. One layer could be a string section, another
brass. This would be a reasonably light texture, with not too many layers. The
thickness also is affected by the amount and the richness of the instruments
playing the piece. The thickness varies from light to thick. A piece's texture
may be affected by the number and character of parts playing at once, the timbre of the instruments or voices playing these parts and the harmony, tempo, and rhythms used.
The types categorized by number
and relationship of parts are analyzed and determined through the labeling of
primary textural elements: primary melody (PM), secondary melody (SM), parallel
supporting melody (PSM), static support (SS), harmonic support (HS), rhythmic
support (RS), and harmonic and rhythmic support (HRS)
In musical terms, particularly in the fields of music history and music
analysis, some common terms for different types of texture are:
sinle melody with no accompaniments
example SAMA VEDAM RECITAL
composition with the melody and beat or chord. Example “PARUVAME PUDIYA PADAL
Polyphonic orCounterpoint SIMULTANEOUS EBB AND FLOW MATCHING THE
MELODY IN CONJUNCTION OR VARIATION WITH SRUTHI AND RHYTHM. EXAMPLE “HEY RAM” BY KAMAL AND VASUNDARA DAS OR ANBE
SIVAM OR A R RAHMAN “Tamizha tamizha’
General homogenous prime melody with relevant accompaniments SO MANY
HITS OF ir,msv AND arr
Hetrophonic Mixture of
one high and one low in vocal or accompaniments many are there But to quote
ABIRAMIYE……..MANIDAR UNARNDU KOLLA…”
Additive or mixture of all
Example ROCK, METAL, HIP-HOP ETC
HARD MUSIC, KUTHUPATTU ETC
COMPARISON WITH OTHERS:
Sage Bharata defines 'Music' as the
confluence or combination of Swara, Tala, & Pada - all in harmonious blend.
Sage Matanga defines 'Raga' as a combination of musical notes that gives
delight. a melody arrangement to project a definite mood, emotion or
Brahma was the origin of
music inspired by Sama Veda. From one note, music progressed to three, then
five & crystallized in seven notes, the Sapta Swaras. Sapta Swaras are
Shadja, Rishaba, Gandhara, Madyama, Panchama, Daivata & Nishada. Swara is a
musical note. Swaras are reputed to have been inspired by sounds of birds &
animals such as :
Indian music has fundamentally been a spiritual aid & the vehicle for the
soul to realise & attain the Universal Soul ( Paramatman). It lay stress on
melody, harmony being secondary though vital.
Corresponding Classification/Nomenclature :
Scale means stepwise
arrangement of notes which when successively invoked develop & provide
melody. Shadjam is basic or adhara swara which is the basis for the other six
notes. Madyama is pitchforked between two traids. Panchama denotes the fifth
place. When Sama Veda was recited ( Sama ganam), the spouse accompanied on
veena or flute.
From Pranavam emanates Satyajatam, Vaamanam,
Tatpurusham, Eesanam & Aghoram which are the five faces of Lord Siva, from
which the musical notes emanated & passed on to Posterity. Siva taught
Parvati, the prime Sishya & it was successively passed on to Tumburu,
Narada, Nandikeswara & Saraswati.
Sama Veda is well-known as musically rendered.
Rig Veda too is reputed to have been chanted once musically.
Thevaram by Appar, Sundarar & Sambandar and Divya Prabandam by Vaishnavite
Azhwars came up during 7-9th centuries.
Seven swaras have twelve
R1,g1,m1,d1,n1 ARE ALSO CALLED
“CHINNA” AND “2”AS ARE CALLED “periya”
72 Sampoorna Ragas having
all seven swaras both in ascending (arohana) & descending (avarohana)
emerge as Mela ragas. Each mela has al the seven swaras but drafts varying
Each mela raga applied to permutations & combinations of swara
sthanas gives scope to 484 janya (sub) ragas. 72 mela ragas have thus a
potential to give the colossal 34776 janya ragas. Of course, this is only an
arithmetical projection & not a melodic feasibility. Of 72 melas, the first 36 have M1
& the second 36 Have M2.
***** Music is
associated with melody. Melody with meaningful words (compositions) becomes a
This is brought out in a
known Sanskrit verse,with a depth meaning;
"Vaagardha viva sampruktau vagartha
Jagatah pitarau vande parvati
says the very first verse of the kavya 'Raghuvamsa' by the poet par
excellence Kalidasa. It conveys that a word & its meaning are indivisible
and it is like the Divine unity of Parvathi & Parameswaran. Such is the
importance of meaning to a word. And in India, where music is perceived as a
means to salvation, we find many compositions which excel in meaning, melody
& technical efficiency. We owe much to the composers, who, through their
structured melodic patterns, poetic phrases & technical brilliance have
enriched Carnatic music.